1. Does my child need a zinc supplement if he/she does not like to eat?
The results of a trace element test alone are not reliable in determining whether a baby is zinc deficient. Zinc deficiency requires not only a reliable test result but also a clinical diagnosis by a medical professional.
Zinc deficiency usually occurs in conjunction with iron deficiency. This is because the daily food source of zinc is also predominantly red meat. For children who have an adequate intake of red meat, there is no need to worry about zinc deficiency.
Poor appetite in children is more a result of poor feeding and eating habits and is not usually related to zinc deficiency. Zinc is most abundant in seafood and red meat, so as long as you try to increase the variety in your diet, you will not be deficient.
Recommended by the Chinese Dietary Guidelines.
- 7-9 months: 600ml or more of milk. Gradually reach 1 egg yolk per day, 25g of meat, poultry and fish, moderate amounts of iron-fortified rice flour, thick porridge, rotten noodles and other cereals; try vegetables and fruit mainly. For those unable to eat eggs, add 30g of meat. If infants are mainly vegetarian, add 5-10g of oil; flaxseed oil or walnut oil is recommended.
- 10-12 months of age: Maintain a daily milk intake of 600ml. The texture of the complementary food should be thicker, coarser and with small particles than the previous stage. 1 egg daily, 25-75g of meat and poultry and fish, moderate amounts of thick porridge, soft rice, steamed buns and other cereals; continue to try vegetables and fruit depending on your baby's needs. Encourage finger foods, try banana pieces, boiled potato pieces, boiled carrot pieces, etc.
- 13-24 months old: Maintain milk intake at around 500ml. 1 egg daily, 50-75g of meat and poultry and fish, 50-100g of cereals such as noodles, soft rice, steamed buns and thick porridge complex; continue to experiment with vegetables and fruit, try nibbling on slices of fruit, large cooked vegetables. Foods such as yoghurt, plain milk and cheese can be introduced.
2. Can I take zinc supplements for diarrhoea?
The WHO, UNICEF and other agencies recommend supplementation with 20mg of zinc daily for diarrhoea (10mg of zinc daily for babies under 6 months) for 10-14 days to reduce the severity of diarrhoea and shorten the duration of the illness.
3. Is my baby's constant head banging a sign of self-harm?
Is it self-harm if my baby keeps banging his head? Is it because he is too strict with his baby?
Has it ever occurred to you that your child may not be self-harming, but rather self-soothing or venting his emotions? After all, a baby's behaviour can be so unpredictable.
In addition to this your baby may be using this as a way of relieving pain, for example the not so intense discomfort caused by a middle ear infection, teething etc. Your baby may be banging his head to distract himself and reduce the discomfort.
It may also be seeking attention. If a caregiver shows a strong reaction when confronted with a child banging his or her head, it can easily become a way for the child to seek attention.
When this happens to a baby, it is a good idea for parents to make some protection for the areas where the baby likes to bang his head, such as bed surrounds, walls and so on. However, if the child is not yet able to roll over on his or her own, do not make these guards in the cot to prevent the risk of suffocation.
Also, parents should not make a fuss when their child bumps to reinforce this behaviour. Parents can distract their baby in time with a favourite toy. You can also teach your child to beat the rhythm by tapping his or her legs or the table. After all, many babies like to bang their heads, probably because they like the rhythm.
Generally this head-banging behaviour in babies appears after 6 months of age and peaks at 18 to 24 months of age, after which it gradually improves. If you notice that your child is banging his head with great intensity even when he is quiet and not in a mood, it is advisable to see a doctor as soon as possible. This may be due to another condition.
4.Is it time for teething?
The timing of teething varies greatly from baby to baby. However, most babies start teething around 6 months of age.
Some of the more typical symptoms of teething are
Drooling, which may start to flow 2 months before teething.
A little irritability, unspecified oral discomfort and easy irritability.
A tendency to gnaw on hard things
You can do the following.
1. Massage the gums
Parents can massage your baby's gums with a clean finger and moistened sterile gauze to apply pressure to the gums to relieve discomfort.
In particular, massage your baby's gums before breastfeeding so that your baby is comfortable before feeding, to avoid nipple biting. If your baby refuses to let go of the nipple, you can gently tickle your baby's little lips to loosen them up.
2. Teething gel
Buy a firm teething ring for your baby to chew on in his or her mouth, which can also help to relieve discomfort. You can also put the teether in the freezer first to make it more comfortable for your baby.
3. Keep cool
A cold washcloth or cold teether can be soothing, but don't give your baby a frozen teether as it can be too cold and cause damage to the gums.
You can also feed your baby some cold applesauce or yoghurt-type foods with a cold spoon if your baby has started complementary foods.
5. How can I arrange my baby's milk intake during these years?
- Within 1 year old, the amount of milk per day (24 hours) is about 700-900ml.
- Between 1 and 2 years old, the recommended daily milk quantity is between 400-600ml.
- For 2-5 years, children should drink 300-500ml of milk or an equivalent amount of milk products per day.
- 6-18 years, around 300ml. You can drink plain milk after 1 year of age. Most authorities in the world (including WHO, EU, AAP, NHS, etc.) agree that after 1 year of age 'milk' can be in any form you wish: breast milk, pasteurised fresh milk, ultra-high temperature sterilised plain milk, chilled/ambient plain yoghurt, whole milk powder, formula milk, cheese, etc.
6. How can I determine if my baby has a fever?
Although your baby's body temperature can fluctuate due to the environment, movement, crying, etc. However, the American Academy of Paediatrics says that a baby is feverish if he or she has
▶ Your baby's axillary temperature (armpit) reaches 37.2°C or higher.
▶ Your baby's mouth temperature reaches 37.8°C or higher.
▶ Your baby's anal temperature, temporal artery or ear temperature reaches 38°C or higher.
General axillary temperature issues.
- Normal body temperature: 36 to 37°C.
- Low fever temperature: 37.3 to 38°C.
- Moderate fever temperature: 38.1 to 39°C.
- High fever temperature: 39.1 to 41°C.
- Ultra-high fever temperature: 41°C or higher.
The American Academy of Pediatrics has long since stopped recommending the use of mercury thermometers. Mercury thermometers are really fragile, and not only is the broken glass easy to stab your baby, but the mercury inside the thermometer, also known as mercury, can easily evaporate, and mercury leaks can cause some environmental and health hazards, so it is not recommended.
Digital electronic thermometers can measure your baby's oral and rectal temperatures. Electronic thermometers are more accurate than other types of thermometers and parents should read the instructions carefully when using them and follow the instructions.
Electronic thermometers are popular due to their small size, accuracy and low price, but if you are measuring your baby's armpit temperature, it will take a little longer than other thermometers and your baby may not cooperate.
Ear thermometers can sense the infrared rays emitted by the tympanic membrane, which makes the measurement accurate and short, so the baby does not have to cooperate for a long time, but they are more expensive.
Furthermore, the gun thermometer is only suitable for babies over 6 months of age, and ear temperature (tympanic membrane) measurements for babies under 6 months of age are not accurate.
7. When should I start brushing my baby's teeth?
Parents should start brushing their baby's teeth when the first tooth comes in.
When 1 or 2 teeth first erupt, it may take a few seconds to brush. As more teeth erupt, the brushing time should be around 3 minutes.
For a clean mouth, brushing is best done twice a day, morning and evening.
There is no guarantee that brushing will be effective until ta starts primary school. When young, parents need to be fully responsible for brushing twice a day; when older, babies may grab their own brushes, and then they also need help from parents to brush carefully again after they have brushed themselves.
When brushing, you can let your baby lie flat so that you can see all the teeth clearly, or you can hold your baby with one hand and brush him with the other.
Babies should usually rinse their mouths with water after drinking formula milk. After brushing, do not eat any more food before going to bed except for water.
Some families do not use fluoride toothpaste because they are afraid that the baby will swallow it.
Fluoride toothpaste can effectively prevent tooth decay and promote remineralisation of teeth, which is very good stuff for babies, especially children who are prone to wormy teeth. Fluoride toothpaste for children is very safe as long as it is used in the normal recommended amounts.
A thin layer (the size of a grain of rice) of toothpaste is recommended for babies under 3 years old, a pea-sized amount is recommended for babies over 3 years old.
Children under 3 years old are not yet able to spit out the foam well, so parents only need to demonstrate and encourage your child to learn to do so. Even if your baby does not spit it all out or eats it all, it is safe as long as the amount used by parents is the recommended amount.
Is the lack of teeth at 8 months a calcium deficiency?
Please don't get hung up on the timing of teething, as it is normal for the first tooth to come in between 4 and 15 months. There is no difference between early and late teething, it is common and normal and has nothing to do with calcium deficiency.